AI Studies

Do AI Image Detectors Work? Accuracy Study

Unlock the potential of AI-powered image detection! Explore its applications in biology, medicine, and environmental sciences. Learn how it accelerates research, aids early disease diagnosis, and enhances safety in autonomous vehicles. Discover the transformative impact of AI image recognition beyond academia.

The usefulness of AI-generated image detection extends far beyond the academic world. Artificial intelligence (AI)-powered picture recognition is increasingly important in various academic disciplines, including biology, medicine, and the environmental sciences. By automating the analysis of large datasets, we can learn more about complex phenomena quickly. Using AI-driven image detection to diagnose diseases early improves patient outcomes while reducing healthcare providers' workloads. Autonomous vehicles can better detect and avoid hazards in real-time with this technology. 

Image detection aids in crime prevention and public safety because of its applications in surveillance and security. In the creative industry, AI-generated picture detection can speed up content regulation and provide safety from harmful or inappropriate content. Artificial intelligence-generated image identification has numerous expanding applications, including research, security, and efficiency.

While artificial intelligence-generated picture identification systems have made great strides in various academic and commercial applications, they still face several challenges. The lack of transparency and interpretability in AI algorithms is a big issue in the academic community since it hinders researchers' ability to comprehend how these systems arrive at their conclusions. Due to the importance of trust and understanding in research, this lack of transparency may encourage researchers to use these methods. These algorithms can be unfair because they take on the biases of their training data, making issues of fairness and objectivity more difficult to address. 

False positives and negatives can have serious consequences in some fields, such as medicine, where incorrect diagnosis based on AI-generated image analysis could have devastating effects. In addition to the already significant data privacy concerns, using personal photographs poses safety and consent considerations. 

This field is rapidly evolving because we must always adapt to new developments and update our artificial intelligence (AI) detection technologies to account for emerging threats. Weighing these challenges against the immense promise of AI-generated picture identification tools is a continuous and critical task for academic institutions and other sectors of society. So, there is a need to compare different AI image detection tools to get the best tool to be used in the market. This guide was created by Originality to address the issue, "What artificial intelligence content detector is the most accurate?" We also propose an open-source tool to promote transparency and accountability in all AI content detectors, and we provide a standard for evaluating the performance of AI picture detectors. 

Following are the contributions by which research goals can be achieved. 

  1. Developing an open-source dataset to help researchers identify AI image detection effectiveness.
  2. Conducting a comparative analysis using state-of the art evaluation parameters which are commonly used to check performance of AI image detection models. 
  3. Providing detailed instructions and including the calculation in the tool to help identify the most important AI vs Original Human classifier efficacy metrics.

Research Questions

  • Certainly, the following is a collection of research questions in AI-generated image identification technologies for a variety of contexts:
  • What privacy and ethical concerns must be considered when creating AI image-detecting tools?
  • Identifying and avoiding cyberbullying and harassment based on images: how might artificial intelligence help?
  • In the context of national security and disinformation, how can deepfakes be detected?
  • How can artificial intelligence image detection tools be improved for quality assurance and manufacturing inspection?
  • What methods work best to detect improper content in user-generated photographs and films uploaded to online platforms? 
  • How might artificial intelligence (AI)-based image identification be used to improve accessibility for people with visual impairments?
  • Forensic picture analysis and evidence processing are two areas where artificial intelligence (AI) could greatly aid law enforcement.
  • How can we ensure that AI image detection algorithms are fair and free of bias?

Testing Method

The primary goal of this article is to verify and validate the results acquired by the tools presented in this part by testing them on a self-developed dataset that is freely available to all academics. First, a collection of photos has been assembled. The tools were then conducted a series of manual tests using their web interface.


The database consists of 110 pictures created by the DALLE-3 AI model and 100 pictures captured by humans. These photographs are perfect for research because they depict a wide range of subjects. The database's particular complexity stems from the wide range of image sizes that it contains. Human-recorded photographs offer a genuine glimpse into the world, while DALLE-3's AI-generated images showcase the potential of generative AI to produce novel visual content. Having both types of images in the same database provides a rare opportunity to study the disparities between human and artificial creativity and the challenges given by images of varying dimensions in image processing and analysis.

Dataset details used for AI image detection
Dataset details used for AI image detection

Tools used for Comparison.

AI or Not

Powerful data privacy and security tool, AI or Not. It retains uploaded photographs and URLs for analysis, following industry best practices and data protection requirements. Data security is in the Privacy Policy. On the "Contact Us" page, users can submit their name, email address, and message to the AI or Not team for support. 

AI or Not's API and documentation explain mass photo analysis integration into many platforms. The tool supports JPEG and PNG, but unsupported formats must be converted. Upload or link an image to analyze. AI or Not offers premium API services for bulk image analysis and commercial applications with API documentation detailing price and usage. Single-image analysis is free. 

AI or Not recognizes AI-generated content using advanced image analysis and machine learning. The program properly detects content origin by comparing input photos to AI models and human-made visual patterns, artifacts, and characteristics. AI or Not is a web-based tool that rapidly and accurately separates AI-generated photographs from human-generated ones. It even names the AI model—mid-journey, stable diffusion, or DALL-E.

AI or Not interface
AI or Not interface


Advanced AI image-detecting tool Illuminarty leads to image analysis technology. Its main goal is to illuminate digital imagery's complexities and determine its authenticity, integrity, and provenance. Illuminarty uses advanced machine-learning techniques to detect image alteration, forgeries, and AI-generated material. Its comprehensive capabilities enable image assessment transparency and accuracy by detecting AI-generated features. 

Illuminarty can also evaluate photos of multiple formats, giving it a versatile option for many applications. Illuminarty is a reliable resource for verifying digital photos' validity for legal, journalistic, or scholarly purposes. Professionals and people use its straightforward interface and fast analysis to maintain digital media integrity in an era where image authenticity is crucial.

Illuminarty Interface
Illuminarty Interface

May Be AI Art Detector (Hugging Face)

To demonstrate how effective a Vision Transformer (ViT) model may be in determining whether or not an artistic image has been made using AI Maybe has developed a proof-of-concept application called AI Art Detector. The goal of this tool, which uses cutting-edge AI technology, is to recognize and differentiate between human-generated and AI-generated art, shedding light on the dynamic junction of creativity and automation in the art world. It is an exploratory effort that adds to the current dialogue between AI researchers and artists about the utility of machine learning for categorizing artistic works.

MayBe AI Art Detector
MayBe AI Art Detector

Evaluation Policy

Effective and ethical machine learning and deep learning model evaluation policies are essential to their advancement. This comprehensive strategy contains several crucial features. First, select task assessment metrics like classification, regression, natural language processing, or computer vision. In addition, the policy should address robust cross-validation, dataset splitting, and imbalanced data handling. Fairness, transparency, and prejudice reduction in appraisal are needed to avoid stereotypes and discrimination.

The policy should involve rigorous testing against real-world scenarios and user feedback loops to improve models and react to changing demands and challenges. A thorough review procedure is needed to ensure machine learning and deep learning models responsibly address complicated problems.

Confusion Matrix

A confusion matrix is a crucial machine learning and statistics tool for assessing classification model performance. Tabulating true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative numbers simplifies categorization task summaries. True positives and negatives are correctly predicted outcomes. A false positive or false negative occurs when the model predicts a good outcome when it should have predicted a negative outcome. Data scientists and machine learning practitioners need this matrix to evaluate accuracy, precision, recall, and other parameters to improve model performance and predictiveness.


Accuracy is important in machine learning and statistics because it measures model prediction. Accuracy is a percentage of accurately predicted cases to the dataset's total occurrences. The term "accuracy" could mean:

Confusion Matrix Accuracy Calculating Formula

In this formula, the "Total Number of Predictions" represents the size of the dataset, while the "Number of Correct Predictions" is the number of predictions made by the model that corresponds to the actual values. A quick and dirty metric to gauge a model's efficacy is accuracy, but when one class greatly outnumbers the other in unbalanced datasets, this may produce misleading results.


Precision is the degree to which a model correctly predicts the outcome. In the areas of statistics and machine learning, it is a common metric. The number of correct positive forecasts equals the ratio of true positive predictions to all positive predictions. The accuracy equation can be described as follows:

Confusion Matrix Precision Calculating Formula
Confusion Matrix Precision Calculating Formula

The avoidance of false positives and negatives in practical use is what precision quantifies. A high accuracy score indicates that when the model predicts a positive outcome, it is more likely to be true, which is especially important in applications where false positives could have major consequences, such as medical diagnosis or fraud detection.


Recall (true positive rate or sensitivity) is an important performance metric in machine learning and classification applications. It measures a model's ability to discover and label every instance of interest in a given dataset. To recall information, follow this formula:

Confusion Matrix Recall Calculating Formula
Confusion Matrix Recall Calculating Formula

In this formula, TP represents the total number of true positives, whereas FN represents the total number of false negatives. Medical diagnosis and fraud detection are two examples of areas where missing a positive instance can have serious effects; applications with a high recall, which indicates the model effectively catches a large proportion of the true positive cases, could profit greatly from such a model.


The F1 score is a popular metric in machine learning that combines precision and recall into a single value, offering a fairer evaluation of a model's efficacy, especially when working with unbalanced datasets. The formula for its determination is as follows:

Confusion Matrix F1 Score Calculating Formula
Confusion Matrix F1 Score Calculating Formula

Significance of parameters

Precision is the proportion of correct predictions relative to the total number of correct predictions made by the model, whereas recall measures the same proportion relative to the number of genuine positive cases in the dataset. The F1 score excels when a compromise between reducing false positives and false negatives is required, such as medical diagnosis, information retrieval, and anomaly detection. By factoring in precision and recall, F1 is a well-rounded measure of a classification model's efficacy.

A machine learning classification model's accuracy can be evaluated using the ROC curve and the Confusion Matrix. The ROC curve compares the True Positive Rate (Sensitivity) to the False Positive Rate (1-Specificity) at different cutoffs to understand a model's discriminatory ability. The Confusion Matrix provides a more detailed assessment of model accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score, which meticulously tabulates model predictions into True Positives, True Negatives, False Positives, and False Negatives. Data scientists and analysts can use these tools to learn everything they need to know about model performance, threshold selection, and striking a balance between sensitivity and specificity in classification jobs.

Results and Discussions

The results and discussion surrounding these tools reveal intriguing insights into the usefulness and feasibility of three AI image detection approaches for differentiating AI-generated images from human-captured images. Detection technologies, including Ai or Not, Illuminarty, and Maybe AI Art Detector were ranked based on several factors, including accuracy, precision, recall, and f1-score. Table 2 compares different AI image detection approaches that can be used to tell the difference between AI-generated and captured images.

Comparative results of AI image detection tools on test dataset
Comparative results of AI image detection tools on test dataset

Table 2 shows how well different AI picture detection tools did on a test set of images. The tools are judged on how well they can tell the difference between pictures made by AI and those taken by humans. The results of Ai or Not are great; it gets a high precision, recall, and F1 score of 97 for both AI-generated and human-captured pictures. Another tool, Illuminarty, does well with pictures taken by humans (with scores of 66 for precision, 79 for recall, and 72 for F1) but could be better with images made by AI. It's worse at everything, but the MayBe AI Art Detector has a very low recall for AI-generated pictures, meaning it misses many of them. These results show what these AI picture detection tools do well and could be better when it comes to telling the difference between images made by AI and images taken by humans.

Comparison of accuracy achieved by AI image detection tools on test dataset
Comparison of accuracy achieved by AI image detection tools on test dataset

There is a comparison of how well three AI picture detection tools did on a test dataset in Figure 4. Some of the tools are "AI or Not," "Illuminarty," and "Maybe AI Art Detector." The heights of these bars show how accurate each one is. This comparison showed that "AI or Not" was the most correct tool, scoring 97.14%. "Illuminarty" came in second with a score of 70.95%, and "Maybe AI Art Detector" came in third with a score of 53.81%. Based on how well each tool finds images, this graph makes it easy to see which one is the most accurate.

Testing confusion matrices of AI image detection tools on test dataset
Testing confusion matrices of AI image detection tools on test dataset

Figure 5 shows confusion matrices that can be used to test how well pictures created by AI and images taken by humans can be distinguished. These grids make it easy to see how well different technologies can tell the difference between images made by AI and images taken by humans. The blue color used in these grids makes them clearer. The real labels are shown in the rows of the matrix, and the predicted labels are shown in the columns. In the matrix, each cell shows the number of instances that fit that category. 

These matrices are useful for checking how well different text detection methods work generally, how accurate they are, and how well they remember images. This visual guide is very helpful for people using, researching, or making decisions who want to judge and compare how well different AI image detection technologies work.

Testing Receiver Operating Curves of AI image detection tools on test dataset
Testing Receiver Operating Curves of AI image detection tools on test dataset

Figure 6 displays the Testing Receiver Operating Curves (ROCs) for selecting AI image detection tools, visually comparing their relative strengths and weaknesses. These ROC curves, one for each tool, are essential for judging how well they can tell the difference between AI-generated and human-captured images. Values for "AI or Not," "Illuminarty," and "Maybe AI Art Detector" in terms of Area Under the Curve (AUC) are 0.97, 0.71, and 0.56, respectively. The Area under the curve (AUC) is a crucial parameter for gauging the precision and efficiency of such programs. A bigger area under the curve (AUC) suggests that the two text types can be distinguished with more accuracy. To help users, researchers, and decision-makers choose the best AI text recognition tool for their needs, Figure 6 provides a visual summary of how these tools rank regarding their discriminative strength.


This study tests how well three AI picture detection tools can tell the difference between images made by AI and images taken by humans. Different measures, like accuracy, precision, memory, and F1 score, were used to judge AI or Not, Illuminarty, and Maybe AI Art Detector tools.

Table 2 shows the results. It shows that AI or Not got high scores (97) for both AI-generated pictures and images taken by humans. Illuminating did a good job with pictures taken by humans, but it could do a better job of finding images made by AI. The MayBe AI Art Detector had a low recall for images made by AI, which means it missed a lot of them. 

Figure 4 shows a visual comparison of how accurate the tools are. With a score of 97.14%, Ai or Not comes out on top.

Figure 5 shows confusion matrices that can be used to rate the tools, and Figure 6 shows Receiver Operating Curves that show what they can do. This study helps users, researchers, and decision-makers choose the best AI picture detection tool for their needs by focusing on how well it can tell the difference between images created by AI and images taken by humans. Notably, does not have an AI picture detector right now.

Jonathan Gillham

Founder / CEO of Originality.AI I have been involved in the SEO and Content Marketing world for over a decade. My career started with a portfolio of content sites, recently I sold 2 content marketing agencies and I am the Co-Founder of, the leading place to buy and sell content websites. Through these experiences I understand what web publishers need when it comes to verifying content is original. I am not For or Against AI content, I think it has a place in everyones content strategy. However, I believe you as the publisher should be the one making the decision on when to use AI content. Our Originality checking tool has been built with serious web publishers in mind!

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